Wednesday, December 13, 2017

To Speed Up Performance of Your PC, Install Registry Repair For Windows

It's a common thing nowadays to have a computer, either at home, or at work, or simultaneously, at both the places. A computer is a complex machine which handles a number of complex tasks, so once you own a computer, special attention is required towards the proper maintenance and upkeep of this complex machine which helps you in multiple ways in your day to day life. This maintenance does not involve rocket science, but can be done if you keep in mind a few simple things. The main thing involved here is the cleaning up your computer of the different kinds of files that keep piling on. This activity is also known as registry repair for Windows.

Once we start talking about clean up of windows registry, the next logical question that comes to mind is, what is the Windows Registry. It is actually a database storage facility in your computer where all the information is safely stored. Whenever you are performing any kind of task on your computer, be it starting a program, shutting down a program, surfing the internet, downloading or uploading of any file, addition or removal of USB or any other external device, it is the Windows Registry that you are interacting with behind the scenes. All the information like software, hardware, and all settings and information that your computer has, is stored in the registry.

It is quite natural, therefore, that files and folders pile up and clog the system while performing so many tasks. The cleaning up of the Windows registry, is hence a tedious task which is quite impossible to do manually. In order to optimize your registry, you need to have a tool that will be able to do registry repair for Windows. All the problems that lie in your registry should be detected by the software, as more often than not most of the problems reside very deep in the registry. This will take care of the hang-ups that are caused as a direct result of these problems.

Generally the process of registry cleaning does not involve any threat. But, errors can happen from the Windows Registry Repair. Therefore, it is important that the Registry Repair for Windows should also have another important feature, that is to create and maintain backup files for your registry. You can restore your registry back into its last working state, if the registry cleaner you use has a backup utility.

Removing undesirable programs on your startup will make your PC work much quicker. One other useful feature that you should ensure in your Registry Cleaner, is the ability to download free updates. The program can clean the registry better if the cleaner can be updated with the latest program revisions. All these features of an ideal Registry Repair for Windows will allow you to boost up your PC performance by eliminating the problems on your machine. Frequent reboots, hang-ups, corrupted file should be taken care of by a good registry cleaner which would provide you with a much better computing experience.

Tapu Goswami has 5 years of experience in the IT field and have researched on the above subject. Currently he is employed in one of the leading IT/ BPO companies.

Sunday, December 3, 2017

Improving Business Challenges With an IT Support Service Provider

A business's IT should fundamentally let it flourish and not let it down when needed most in times of disaster. Your IT infrastructure may look fundamentally correct but does it let you thrive by optimizing your business needs. As, expecting your IT to do more without proper investment will not bear any fruits and will not ever expand your portfolio too.

As an IT, should enable you to expand, manoeuvre and thrive in the market which lets you jump ahead of competitors through adaptation and meeting market disruptions.

Having an IT support team can help you to improve productivity, operations and efficiency, this can help you serve customers well and even acquire new ones. With the help of a good IT support team you can have business continuity in times of disaster and crisis situations too.

Technology should let you tap in to new revenue streams and increase sales revenue from existing ones and make you get a better market share than your competitors. It should also let you gain great insight in to your market and new prospects. Maintaining your IT properly will also let your prospects get a good experience with your business and make you target them more effectively than before and let you enjoy a greater market share than your competitors.

Customers and prospects can be segmented according to their individual needs. Hence, they can be targeted with the best value proposition if you have proper IT in place.

Technology can help streamline your business and make your employees job easier and increase efficiency. Increasing efficiency means more time and resources saved so it becomes imperative for the business to have proper IT in place and increase the profits.

Since, technology drives a business, incidents might occur and having an IT support team can help you avoid or take care of situations in a better way. And investing in a proper IT support team is crucial to any business as technology drives modern-day business and this will improve your efficiency, profits and productivity.

Having an IT support service provider in place can help improve your business considerably well. An IT support service provider can understand your business and offer solutions that will improve your efficiency, productivity and profits which will let you have an edge with your competitors as you expand and thrive in your market. So, go ahead and plan ahead for your business with the help of an IT support service provider.

Friday, November 3, 2017

Can I Fix That?

We all know that sinking feeling when our computer just won't cooperate. It is running slow, it won't load videos or pages in a timely manner or it's picked up some type of malware, virus or bug that is making it impossible to use properly. Perhaps it just crashed all together. While we all use computers we aren't all adept at fixing them as that takes a different kind of mindset that a lot of us just don't have. However, never fear as there are some things even the most computer un-friendly person can try before hauling the machine over to the professionals.

With most things that plug in (and yes, even laptops have to be plugged in at one time or another) the thing most people do when it's not running properly is simply unplug it and try to fire it up again. This total turn off, total unplugging of the machine and total shut down of anything running on it can sometimes help the problem. The machine takes a little break and then everything is great when you turn it back on. Thankfully, sometimes this actually works and you can go back to doing whatever you were doing.

If a hard shut down doesn't fix the problem, don't worry there are other things you can try. Look to see if your computer is up to date, if you haven't installed any of those pesky updates, this is the time to do that. A computer that has been updated works better than one that is running on old programming. Still not right?

It may be the computer that's the problem, but it may also be your broadband connection. If that is all right, you'll want to find out if you have enough free space on your hard drive. Windows needs room which means free space all the time in order to make files while the system is running. Not enough room and you'll encounter problems. Here you can try a system configuration which you can access quite easily. Check the startup item and manufacturer columns first and see what programs you can disable to give you more room. Remember not to remove anything that says Microsoft corp. next to it as that is something you will actually need.

Still not working properly? If you don't have a tech savvy friend, this will be the time when you take your baby in to the professionals for help. Good luck!

Tuesday, October 3, 2017

Dealing With Common Windows PC Problems To Improve Efficiency



If you rely on your PC to get most of your work done, then you understand how frustrating even the slightest computer issues can be. One of the best ways of ensuring that your computer performance is efficient and reliable is by at least learning to solve common problems. There are a number of Windows PC problems that can easily be solved getting you back into enjoyable performance and they include the following:

Slow computer - It is one of the commonest problems among Windows users. Before considering replacing your PC consider the reasons behind the slowdown. Some of the reasons behind it include corrupted registry, unnecessary programs, spyware and fragmented data. You can easily get your speeds back by removing programs you never use or shutting them down when you are done using them. You can also get Windows applications to clean registry and run disk defragmenter.

Computer freezes - Viruses are usually behind this issue. Malware infections are on the rise, leading to the freezes. Computer hardware can also lead to the problem. Be careful when clicking links you are not familiar with or suspicious looking links to prevent viruses. Install anti-spyware and antivirus and ensure it is always updated. It is also helpful to check hardware drivers for updated versions and uninstalling components recently installed if you suspect the problem is hardware related.

Unexpected turn offs - If you keep experiencing unexpected computer, turn offs, you could have bad cable connections, inadequate power supply or defective battery. When your PC overheats, it is also likely to shut down so it can cool. Beat the problem by ensuring cables are connected properly and checking the fan regularly so you can dust and clean as appropriate. If you are using a laptop, you may want to check the battery; deterioration over time is inevitable and it may be time to have it replaced.

Web printing fails - You may be faced with a need to print documents from the web only to find that your computer won't print. It could be because the document you are trying to print is password protected hence making it not printable or it could be that you have turned on pop-up blocker. It would be a good idea to allow temporary pop-ups and you can also find legitimate programs to break codes in documents that are protected.

Strange noises - They could be vibration or buzzes. They usually are as a result of failed or failing hardware. Electrical component problems may cause whining noises whereas lack of ventilation can cause the buzzing noises. Consider cleaning the fan and filter off any dust and ensure the air inlets are free. In some cases, you may need to uninstall and reinstall sound drivers or replace sound card.

Problems getting online - Network misconfigurations, software and hardware router errors, incorrect IP address, service provider latency and firewall application can all be responsible for this. Check all elements that matter, including your network connection status so you can reboot the router where necessary or call your ISP.




Some Windows PC problems can be resolved by fixing errors in your DLL files. If you are looking for reliable DLL fix, DLL suite is what you should be considering.

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Automating Linux Updates With Ansible And Rundeck

If you are experiencing growth within your organization and find yourself having to make tough decisions in the spirit of progress, solutions for keeping your IT team productive are definitely in order. One of the many ways that you can streamline productivity and limit mundane tasks lie in the ability to create scripts that eliminate repetition..

For example, in most cases, dozens or even hundreds of servers are being used on a daily basis. Each one of those servers has an authentication and login procedure. By creating a script in Ansible, you can automate this process and save valuable time throughout the day. This frees up precious time your employees need to knock out more complicated issues.

Simplifying your cloud provisioning options is a smart strategy because changes and updates happen frequently and upgrades all of your servers to meet those changes is the proverbial "time killer". Automating this process eliminates the chance for human error and is known to improve employee morale. Incorporating Ansible into your IT department's daily routine can show immediate results and instantaneously transform the way your team handles its day-to-day activities.

If your engineers are spending too much time performing easy tasks that seem more repetitive than impactful, a switch to Ansible can have the results you seek. What's even more appealing about Ansible is that the YAML-coded scripts can be as simple or complex, as the experience level of your IT team. Knocking out the basic, everyday tasks will put hours back onto your productivity clock, but having the knowledge to create more challenging scripts that handle multiple-step processes can be a major game changer.

The most important thing your organization has is time. Time means money. Proper usage of time determines productivity and task completion. There are a plethora of options in today's marketplace. Ansible is a highly attractive alternative to its competitors because it is agentless and doesn't require you to make manual changes to dozens of nodes. It's convenient and easy-to-use, not to mention that the software is well-supported with numerous modules for scripting tasks and a development team eager to answer questions.

How Ansible Works
Ansible provides the framework to script your most common and repetitive tasks, into what they call "playbooks". Once these playbooks are created, they can utilize available modules (ie. Yum or Apt modules), not only for Ansible, but for other modules, as well. These modules plug into available operating system tools to perform tasks on the nodes. If a module is not available, the playbooks can use command syntax to run. Basically, anything that would work on a command line of a node can be scripted into a playbook for Ansible.

How Rundeck Works
If you should decide to incorporate Ansible into your development teams toolbox, you should give serious consideration to using Rundeck in tandem. Rundeck provides the reporting, scheduling and organizational tool that your team needs to stay on-point. If you are a smaller business, you will see other alternatives in the marketplace, but they are cost restrictive and not as much of a "value purchase" as Rundeck.

While Ansible serves as the tool to help you create scripts, Rundeck gives you the slick-looking, front-end platform to make sense of it all. The ability to see historic views of each task, the end result of those tasks and options for job assignments are an effective way to keep your entire team in communication mode and knowing what the team gameplan is at all times.

The perfect one-two combination for your Linux updates is by using Ansible with Rundeck for a streamlined approach to your workday.

Tuesday, September 5, 2017

Artificial Intelligence In Education

Now that we have some idea how Artificial Intelligence (AI) will impact Millennials, banking and financial institutions, and small businesses, how will it impact the classroom?

Educators have pinpointed 10 ways it will influence the way we educate our kids. They include:

The automation of basic activities.
Adapting the curriculum to the needs of the students.
Identify where courses should be improved.
AI "tutors" offering additional support to students.
Provide helpful feedback to students and teachers.
Alter how teachers and students interact with information.
Change the role of teachers.
Help make trial and error learning less threatening.
Offer new ways to find, teach, and support students.
Change where students learn, who teaches them, and how they learn basic skills.
It is not uncommon for today's teachers, whether they do their work in elementary, secondary school, high school, or college, spending their evenings and weekends grading papers or exams. No doubt a teacher or two would much rather use this time to interact with students, spend more time preparing classes, or even work on their own personal development.

Help is on the way thanks to AI. The technology can automate grading for such things as multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank tests. Moreover, computer scientists are working toward the existence of software that will grade essays.

In addition, AI software will allow teachers to individualize learning. This will allow students to learn at their own pace with teacher assistance.

Since teachers are concentrating on educating their students, they can be unaware of gaps in their lectures and in educational materials. Such gaps can cause confusion among some students about certain concepts. AI can find a trend of too many students submitting a wrong answer to a particular question or homework assignment and alert the teacher to the problem. This will permit teachers to change their presentations in a manner that will solve the issue. Students can be given a more customized message that helps them understand concepts. Meanwhile, AI is providing them with constant feedback that helps them better understand concepts.

Just as in other segments of the economy where AI is or will change the human workforce to work more in conjunction with the technology, teachers too will adjust to this working pattern. Teachers will enhance the lessons that AI has taught the students with actual hands-on experiences.

AI will open up trial and error as a form of learning and allow students to experiment and learn without fear of failure.

As AI becomes more ubiquitous in the field of education, it will help colleges recruit students and help students select courses. It could customize every aspect of the educational experience to be closer to their needs and goals. For example, some colleges are already offering AI-guided training that help students make the transition from high school to college. Some day AI may help students select a college that has the program that fits with their interests.

And, just as AI has revolutionized how we get our information, it will do the same in education. Doing research will involve AI and result in the development of information sources never seen before.

In short, AI will revolutionize education to a point where students can learn anywhere and at any time wherever they are in the world. For better or worse, it may also hasten the replacement of teachers in certain areas of the educational process.

Keep up with what is in store in the brave new world of AI with the help of WorkFusion.

The less you know about AI, the more you need to check out WorkFusion.


Sunday, August 13, 2017

The Effects of Computer Technology on Our Everyday Lives

These days, the computer technology industry is rapidly growing and changing. Along with that growth and change of computer technology are the people who almost instantly adapt to the changes.

Computer technology has made our lives a lot easier and convenient. For instance our banking needs. Years ago, people had to manually file the important data of their customers; now they just use the computer to find these data. In just one click, they would instantly find the name of the customer, the birth date, the address, e-mail address, phone numbers and etcetera. As for the clients of these banks, they can also easily get a quick look at their account balances through logging in to the bank website; in addition to that a lot of people are able to apply for a loan with the use of the computer.

Because of the birth of computer technology, we now have credit cards or what others call plastic money, which are very useful especially when we do not have cash on hand or when you are ordering a certain product through the internet. It's amazing how computer technology has changed so much our way of living. Nowadays, purchasing products such as cellular phones, bags, household utensils, and clothes or even paying the bills can be effortlessly done at the comfort of your own home.

With the use of the computer a lot of students especially those with unfortunate disabilities or severe illnesses are able to enroll to different schools through home schooling. Students are even able to take their examination tests or check out their grades by the use of the computer.

As far I know computer technology has helped a lot of businesses to better serve the community. But the computers have not only helped us in the business industry; it also has an effect on our communication systems. Long before the computers were born, writing letters were the main source of communication, which would be such a hassle most especially to those people who lived in far away places; plus telephones were quite expensive so people would pretty much prefer writing to their loved ones. And for that reason, people who are far away from civilization would really have a hard time communicating with others. Now, we have e-mails, and live chat, or even voicemails. We now already have video calling in which we would be able to see the person that we are talking to. This would be really great for people who have loved ones that are away from home. Getting in touch with one another is now a piece of cake.

Computer technology has changed our lives for the better. Without it, we would still be living in the pre historic times.

The Benefits of Using Computers

Computers have become an important part in homes, businesses and the society. There are many people who use computers in their daily lives either for gaming, programming, for prepress equipment, learning new applications or for CTP work. Computers can either be purchased as desktop units or as laptops which makes it quite convenient to use. Laptop computers even enable people to use it whether they are lying on the bed, waiting for a train at the train station or sitting in a restaurant. With the different kinds of computers available, there are also many different brands to choose from. No matter which type or brand of computer an individual uses, computers have become really important in the lives of people and is a great tool in helping people to broaden their knowledge on a wide range of subjects such as information technology, computer studies, word processing, internet and so on.

Computers are simply wonderful machines and everyone depends on it in one way or the other. The applications and programs that these machines offer are benefiting the society either directly or indirectly. The benefits include creating information technology employments, opening communication methods, safety features for automobiles, using for diagnosing patients, predicting weather patterns and calculating data sets. Many small to large businesses nowadays are using computers as a way of storing information and managing their daily activities.

As new applications are being discovered frequently, more employment is created. Apart from businesses, most of the homes have computers and as problems arise with the machines, more and more professionals are needed to deal with the issues. In this world, computers have also become an important part in the lives of children. Nowadays, children are more interested in exploring the benefits computers offer and are eager to learn new technology. In the near future, due to their growing interest in computers, there will not be shortages in information technology labor force in the society.

Computers, games and technology have major influence and are enlightening the lives of children these days. These children will be able to perform well in areas of social learning, academic learning and development. Children of even three years of age love to play computer games, activities and can perform simple typing commands. Computers offer a lot to kids in terms of learning spellings and correcting their mistakes. With the support of parents and teachers, kids are able to improve their skills and learn more about technology.

Many kids love to play games on computer which improves their speed and alertness. Games such as soccer teach them rules of the games while games such as virtual villagers enable them to stay attentive and take the appropriate action in maintaining the health and well being of the tribe. Moreover, many kids and adults use computers and internet for social networking, searching for information on the web and for many other purposes. It all helps them to develop good communication skills, computer skills and makes them learn new things almost everyday. Individuals and the society greatly depend on computers and in the near future these machines will be the work horses.

Similarities Between the Computer and the Brain

Have you ever realized that the brain and a computer have nearly similar functions? For example, if you download something to your computer, it is just the same as the brain downloading new information during lessons in class. The same thing goes with uploading a file or an image from the computer to the internet; your brain does the same thing by uploading something you learned in class and projecting it onto a piece of paper. For example, your brain downloads an image when you see something, and then uploads it by you drawing a picture of something you have seen. Of course even the world's most powerful supercomputer cannot rival a human brain, but these are some examples of the similarities between man and machine that can be identified. Probably in the future, where humans have developed some high technology will they be able to create near-human computers.

Here are some other similarities between the computer and the brain:

Functions and Purpose

Both are used for storage of information, to process information and to run tasks.

Functions: Both are used for mathematical calculations, carrying out complex algorithms and to storing of crucial information.

Role in society

Both play extremely important roles in society, commerce, entertainment and science

Every single living creature survives by quick thinking and reflexes, that includes us. The computer today plays the most important roles from specialized systems controlling entire production factories to little "fuzzy logic" chips in washing machines that intelligently monitor the washing process.

Combining components

Both work by combining the processes of several components and parts to perform their tasks.

A computer consists of many parts, including a motherboard (which is also made of several components), the disk drives, the processor, graphic cards and many more... all of which has its own roles in the computer's processes.

Like a computer, the brain is formed out of parts. Besides having the left and right brain, there are also parts of the brain that take care of emotions, mathematical calculations, body co-ordinations and many other tasks needed for our daily activities.

Electrical signals

Both work by transmitting "logic signals" to each of their parts. Signals are both electrical

i.e. A computer works by using binary ("on"/"off" logical signals known as "bits", put together as "bytes" to represent data.) To communicate internally between components, represent information and store data.

In a way, neurons in the brain are either "on" or "off" by either firing an action potential or not firing an action potential.

Memory capacity

Both can increase their memory storage capacity.

Computer memory grows by adding computer chips/external hard drives/ pre-installed hard drives. Memories in the brain grow by stronger synaptic connections.

Self-maintenance

Both computers and brain have repair and "backup" systems.

The brain has "built-in back up systems" in some cases. If one pathway in the brain is damaged, there is often another pathway that will take over this function of the damaged pathway.Similar to a computer, where backup files can be stored in the computer.

Degrading with time

Both can degrade. Computers break down and brain cells deteriorate

Like all machines, computers break down with time. Brain cells deteriorate with age, losing their functions and slowing down because of lower counts of chemicals and hormones in the body.

Types of Computers in the Market

Types of computers

There are a number of computer options to select from in today's computer and technology market. Today, computers come in different sizes and styles. Current computers are made in a way that they fit people with different needs and requirements. Apart from the initial desktop and laptop computers there are other types of computers available on the market. Netbook and tablet PCs computers are now available, and a number of people are using them for different purposes.

Netbook PCs

Netbook PCs are similar to small laptops and are primarily meant for travel. They are smaller and lighter when compared to the standard laptops. Netbook computers do not have in-built DVD or CD drives, and their storage space is less. Netbook PCs requires less computing power and are relatively cheap. Netbook PCs perform basic computing activities e.g. word processing and Internet surfing.

Laptops

Coming to the laptop computers, they are solely meant for placing on the lap of a person. What distinguish a laptop from a desktop is the size, structure and mobility. Although laptops are mobile devices, they are not meant for travel. However, laptops are more convenient than desktop PCs.

Tablet PC and convertible laptops

A tablet is a compact single-screen device. Instead of using the traditional keyboard in desktop and laptop PCs tablets use a stylus or finger touch. General uses of tablet PCs are media playing, sending email, reading among other uses. Tablets come in two design namely convertible tablets and slate tablets. On the other hand, a convertible laptop is similar to a tablet PC. The keyboard of the convertible laptop can be folded to form a touch screen tablet. It allows on to use a stylus or touchscreen.

Desktop PCs Vs laptops

A desktop computer primarily stays in one position. The size and components of a desktop computer do not allow for easy moving. However, the system of a desktop PC is stronger and more powerful than that of a laptop. Laptops are mobile and more convenient than desktop PCs but upgrading laptop hardware is nearly impossible.

Laptops Vs tablet PCs

The primary advantage of a tablet over a laptop is the weight. Tablets are light, and you can use them while walking unlike laptops which require you to sit down while working on them. Tablets are useful when one is in a conference since they can be laid down. In today's computer market there are laptop tablet PCs which are basic tablets but have a keyboard and mouse attached to them. You can use them vertically as a traditional style laptop or use them as a tablet.

A Short Article on Technology

The world has undergone enormous changes over the past decade. We now live in a world where communication is paramount. It seems that everyone and everything is connected in some way.

For school students this has made things much more efficient. Research papers that used to involve hours of laborious effort, can now be researched and documented without ever touching a card catalog or a periodical index. Worlds of information are now available at the click of a mouse.

Questions that people pondered without any answer previously can now simply be typed into any convenient search engine and answered almost immediately. There are countless sites filled with informative short articles all over the Internet. Videos and music can now be seen on demand and news from across the world can be delivered in an instant.

There are some people who worry that the technological revolution and evolution we are experiencing today is moving too fast. There seems to be a loss of privacy in some respects and the specter of a Big Brother society looms larger than it has since 1984. Whether their fears are well founded or not will remain to be seen, but it is unlikely that people will ever willingly give up the almost instant connections to our wired world.

Flying in the face of these fears are individuals who share their worlds through their blogs. What used to be shared with only close friends is now put online for millions of people to see if they should happen upon the blogger's website. Individuals are learning to take advantage of this by using their well placed blogs to sell products and services. The internet has allowed individuals an opportunity to step on to the same playing field as the big boys of business. With the right information and the ability to get it seen, anyone can now reach the masses and share their thoughts, feelings and even sales pitches.

Businesses as well as individuals have come to rely on the Internet as a source of advertising and actual sales. Entire business models have been constructed and thriving based solely on using Internet websites. It is rare today to find a traditional brick and mortar establishment that does not have some type of online presence. Any business that does not adapt and grow to keep up with the newest technology seriously risks being left behind in the wake of their competitors who choose to ride technology's leading edge.

Time will tell where this all will lead. We should make the most of the positive possibilities technology promises, but we should also keep a careful watch on where we are going.

Computer Appreciation For Beginners (Part 1)

To those who really want to be perfect in computer operation and understanding, this article which shall come in 'parts' will lead you gently from the basics of computer to the complex usage of the software in the system. Before one starts using the programs in the system, he or she wants understand the system components and their usage. And so I wish to let you know of the meaning of computer and probably the generations of computer.

Definition of a Computer System

Computer is defined in so many ways by so many people based on their field of specialization. A computer is a set of interrelated and interactive devices, which uses electronic components to perform a predefined operation with accuracy. But generally, a computer system may simply be defined as an electronic device, which is capable of accepting data as input, process the data, store the data and provide a result as output in human readable form. The four basic parts of a computer are Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse and System unit.

A Brief History of Computer

Computer history and development is always traced to Charles Babbage, the Father of computers and Lady Ada Lovelace, the Mother of Programming. The computer we have come to use today perfectly without any much stress and difficulty was not invented the way we have seen but passed through series of processes and stages. There exist five generations of computer as briefly discussed below:

First Generation Computer (The Vacuum Tube Technology)

This generation of computers consists of computers developed between 1944 and 1959. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator), EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computers) and UNIVAC 1 and 11 are first generation computers. This generation of computers were very bulky, dissipates a lot of heat, some were very heavy, weighing up to 200 tons. Because of the heat, they needed special cooling system. The characteristic technology of this generation was the use of vacuum tubes as the basic building blocks for the logic parts of the computers. In terms of speed they were very slow compared with computers of later generations.

Second Generation Computer (The Transistor Technology)

The technology, which gave the distinguishing characteristics of the second -generation computers, was the transistor technology. Although this device was developed in 1948 in Bell Telephone Laboratories, and was used largely in the electronic world, it was not until 1959 that it was introduced in the manufacture of computers. These transistors replaced the bulky vacuum tubes. In addition to doing everything that the vacuum tube could do, the transistors would do so with greater reliability, with less power requirement, generate less heat, less costly to manufacture and much smaller in size. The computers developed between 1959 and 1964 are called the second-generation computers. Examples: IBM 7030, 7070, 7090, 7094, Boroughs 200 series, UNIVAC III, Honey-well 800 etc. The development of high level programming languages like FORTRAN and COBOL was another innovation brought by the second-generation computers and were 10 times faster than the first.

Third Generation Computers (Integrated Circuit Technology)

Between 1964 and 1971, the third generation computers were developed. It was the technology of integrated circuits that opened the gates to the third generation computers. In fact we can say that the integrated circuit technology really revolutionized the computer technology itself. Integrated circuits are attached to a small piece of silicon chip. This technology cam progressively from Small Scale Integration (SSI), which contained about twenty interconnected transistors and diodes, through the Medium Scale Integration (MSI) which had over hundred interconnected transistors on a single chip, to Large Scale Integration (LSI) of over tens of thousand of transistors and diodes on a single chip. The achievements of the Integrated circuit technology led to even faster, more reliable, cheap and small-sized computers, whose powers were multiple of those of the earlier generations. In deed, this generation of computers gave birth to the mini computers, whose power of operation was more than the earlier generation, greater reliability and speed, yet was far less in size and in cost. They could do hundred times as many calculations per second and hundred times faster than their second-generation counterparts could. Examples: IBM 31360 - 31370 series, CDC 6600, 7600, Boroughs B5000 and PDP II series.

The Fourth Generation Computers (VLSIC Micro Technology

The very large-scale integrated circuit (VLSIC), made possible by the micro technology of the period 1971-1982 ushered in the fourth generation of computers. VLSIC has between 5,000 and 50,000 gates (transistors), upon which micro-processors were built. The effect of this technology was smaller and smaller but more and more powerful computers whose speed and reliability trivialized those of the earlier generations. This era also produced the micro-computers that could do the job of first generation large computers with thousand of times faster speed and affordable prices even by individual. This generation also produced a wide variety of software packages like word processing packages, graphics, games, spreadsheet packages and database management systems. Networking capabilities were also enhanced in this era. Examples of the fourth generation computers include the IBM 3033, HP 3000 mini computers, Apple II, Boroughs B7700.

Fifth Generation Computers (Era of Artificial Intelligence)

The technology of this generation of computers is characterized by Super Large Scale Integration (ULSI), Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), parallel processing, Artificial Intelligence, Speech Processing, Pattern Recognition and Expert System. The distinguishing characteristics of this generation of computer are their tremendous speed and power. Continuous miniaturization of computers is the order of the day, newer, smaller, more powerful computers are seen day by day. Powerful microcomputers have today dwarfed the capability of the older days mainframe. Pentium II mother board with clock speed higher than 300 MHz and hard disk storage space over 20 Gigabytes with unbelievable capabilities, are now affordable by even low income earners. Networking, ranging from local, wide area to Internets are the common features of this generation of computers and has reduced the whole world into a global village.

Impact Of Modern Technology On Education

There is no doubt that modern technology has impacted in our life. It plays an important role in human life from various ways. It helps us to operate many critical and complex processes easily and effectively. Also in the education sector it impacted majorly and changes way of learning.

Computer Technology

In the education sector computers are revolutionary technology and you can't avoid its importance in schools. It offers interactive audio visual media that allow rendering information to students via animation software and Power Point Presentation in an interactive manner. Visual effects have made learning more interesting for students.

Now days' computer learning is a necessary part of education, so that students can gain basic knowledge of computer technology.

Internet Technology

The internet technology is providing huge information and it becomes a useful effective tool. Search engines are providing lots of information about any query. Various informative websites and web directories are providing wide knowledge. Internet is helping students to enhance their knowledge and gain some extra information too.

Internet and computer technology make distance learning simpler. Now, there is no need to be present in the classrooms, students can sit anywhere and learn. Internet also helps to submit assignment online that is now offered by number of colleges and universities.

The modern technology is not only helping us in education sector it also changing the world. Every where you can observe and sense the effect of technology. From traveling to communication everywhere technology is playing an important role and making human life trouble-free.

The Impact Of Computers On The Economy

The advent of computers has markedly improved our economy and standards of daily living as business, commerce and global trade has flourished at unprecedented rate over the past decades. Furthermore, it has significantly increased the utilization of resources which in turn resulted to a big deluge of output in many business establishments. Despite the brief periods of recession, the economy's sudden downward dive did not leave a devastating impact as predicted as it readily bounced back after a period of adjustments.

The computers served as a tool for global communication where the export and import of manufactured goods between and among countries' businesses are being arranged as communication through electronic mails or emails travel as fast as the speed of light. With the entry of imported products in the local market, consumers nowadays need not go abroad only to sample some of the world's finest food, clothing and apparel and grooming products.

As trade among nations allowed the phasing-out of some barriers, imported goods freely enter the market of a given country with a markedly reduced tax imposed on such goods thereby lowering the selling price of the manufacture. As the economic rule proves true that abundance in the supply lowers the price of a commodity. Because of the stiff competition, international manufacturers and suppliers are given no other alternatives except to mark down the price of their commodities to be able to stay on the business ladder.

Because of computers, Business Process Outsourcing or BPO has provided countries such as India, the Philippines and South Africa a kick to their economy by providing thousands of jobs to its workforce. Countries providing for outsourcing on the other hand, receive the biggest boost to their economy as they are relieved of paying for the manpower costs in their own country as cheaper labor cost in other countries allow them to cut-back expenses. Records show that India alone has revenues of US$10.9 billion from offshore BPO and US$30 billion from IT and total BPO in 2008 giving the country 5-6% share of the total BPO Industry.

The computers and the internet has provided for an avenue where scientists and researchers of pharmaceutical companies for example, to conduct modifications on certain medications, develop drugs of superior quality than other existing drugs and discover new ones that promise immense financial rewards for the sole production and distribution for a period of time.

Indeed, the invention of computers and the internet has become the most effective catalyst for competition to grow not in increments but in big deluge giving businesses the scare of their lives. As competition gets stronger, manufacturing companies employ various marketing strategies to increase sales which ultimately end up to benefit the consumers in general.

The Wonders of Computers and the Global Network of Networks That is the Internet

Computers are one of the supreme and best inventions ever made in the history of modern technology. It has brought numerous and countless advances to many different fields of studies as well as in the lives of many people. Today, computers have changed how people work and have opened new methods and means of acquiring new knowledge and skills. Do you know that computers have even transformed how you communicate with each other through the advancements in technology?

One of these advancements is the Internet. Now, who among you does not know anything about the Internet? Perhaps using computers will never be complete without using the Internet. This global network of networks have swept the lives of many people including you as daily tasks become handier, communications more convenient, and most of all, sources of information broader and more accessible.

Let us try to uncover the benefits of computers and the Internet in an individual's daily life in general:

1. Through the computer and the Internet, you'll be able to discover new ways in getting hold of informative and useful information in almost any fields of studies, something that is imaginable and beyond what you can think of. Information that is definitely ready at your fingertips.

2. It has changed how you do business. Gone are the days of labor-intensive and manual way of inputting data through ink and paper. Now, with a few taps of keys and a few clicks of the mouse, good and productive business is on its way.

3. It opens new doors of opportunities and ventures. Apart from the way you do business, the computer and the Internet has also become your partner in doing business effectively, how your products are sold to vast numbers of consumers, and how services are provided superbly.

How Computers Benefit Society

Computers are wonderful machines. They are everywhere and society depends on them to manage our world. It is no wonder that computers have almost unlimited applications, and that they are multiplying at a steady rate. Many of these applications are benefiting society directly or indirectly. The three most important ways computers are benefiting society, is by, creating more information technology professions, creating new automobile safety features, and opening ground-breaking communication methods. There currently exist many other beneficial functions of these machines, such as their use for diagnosing patients, running weather simulations to predict future weather patterns, and calculating large, complex data sets. As new applications emerge for computer systems, so will the benefits society will derive from them.

Creating more information technology (IT) professions is proportionally related to how many new computer systems are put into use. As new computers are sold to consumers, the demand for more IT professions will rise because consumers will need these professionals to maintain, upgrade and repair their new computer systems. . More employment is also made available when new computer applications are discovered. This makes sense because new applications require new professionals that are trained to deal with that specific application. For example, when the World Wide Web was introduced, many new professions arose. Some of these professions range from website designers and server administrators to online marketers. These factors show that computers are benefiting society directly by creating new information technology professions, which is vitally important to the development of any countries labor force.

Computers were introduced into cars in the late nineteenth century, for such effects as controlling engine functions, fuel injection, and signal light timing. It is not until recently, that computers have started to play a role in helping to save peoples lives by enabling car manufacturers to create new automobile safety features. Air bags are an extremely important safety feature in an automobile. A computer is located in the steering wheel of an automobile, which is equipped with airbags and is the only device capable of signaling the airbags to deploy in the case of an accident. According to McCormick (1999), it is an estimation that "between 1990 and 1997, air bags saved about 150 lives in Canada. In the United States, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that airbags, as of September 1, 1999, have saved the lives of over 4,600 Americans involved in car crashes." This would not be possible without computer systems. Another popular safety feature is the anti-lock braking system, or ABS. The purpose of the anti-lock braking system is to stop a vehicle from locking its tires, which has been shown to dramatically increase a drivers control in a potential crash. These safety features have proven to be beneficial to society thanks to computers, by decreasing the number of automobile accidents, and the number of fatalities involved in such accidents.

Society is dependent on rapid and reliable communications. Computers have allowed us to open ground-breaking communication methods that satisfy those dependencies. One communication method is known as electronic mail (e-mail). E-mail has become a common form of communication because it is free, reliable, and most importantly, incredibly fast. Due to the nature of e-mail, being electronic data, it relies on computers to deliver and receive messages. Another popular method of communication making rapid headway is instant messaging, or IM. According to a survey (Shiu & Lenhart, 2004) "53 million American adults use instant messaging and its appeal is especially apparent among young adults and technology enthusiasts." Similar to e-mail, instant messaging allows many people to send textual information to each other simultaneously. This form of communication is similar to a telephone conversation, but using electronic text as a medium instead of a person's voice. As instant messaging is based on electronic text, it is dependent on computer systems to operate because they are the only devices capable of transmitting and manipulating electronic data. Both of these new communication methods are bringing people closer together, in a global sense, and this is benefiting society.

New problems for society will continually emerge, and as a result, computers will be applied to such problems. These machines are the work horses of the future and as such, society will greatly depend on them. As stated, the three most important ways computers are benefiting society now is by creating more information technology professions, developing new automobile safety features, and opening ground-breaking communication methods. Therefore, computer systems have been shown to be a great benefit to society through these three examples and society will continue to depend on the benefits these systems provide in the future.

Computer and Technology Today

Computer plays an essential role people's day to day life especially at work place, schools and even in home. Twenty first century has been the age of so many technological advancements aimed for making the lives of people better. Computer helps them become more efficient in their work.

Computer technology in banking:

Technology has made our living easy and comfortable, for instance our banking needs. Previously people need to maintain the important data of their customers manually. But right now, in just one click, they would be able to find all the customers' data instantly. The customers are able to know about the transactions of their account by logging in to the bank website. Moreover, it is possible to apply for loans through online.

Improvements of computer technology:

Computer technology has improved our life style far better than before. Due to the emergence of internet and technology, the world has shrunk to a global village. Even though the advancement in internet creates new challenges like computer problems and virus threats, the computer technology like antivirus software made easy to overcome these problems.

Computer in food industry:

The automation and computerization in food processing units is facing lots of challenges if they are used nearby water catastrophic effects on any computer system. Most food processing units prefer waterproof computers to protect their computer systems from drenching in the production area.

Computer in medical field:

Hospital is an important organization and computers are used for the management of a hospital. The accounting, payroll and stock system of the hospital have been computerized in recent days. We can maintain the record of different medicines, their distribution and use in different wards etc. using computer. Even the disease can be diagnosed by entering the symptoms of a patient. Moreover, various computerized devices are used in laboratories for different tests of blood etc.

Computer in agriculture:

Nowadays agricultural industry is also making use of the computers. The analysis that was taken some few years before shows that 44% of the farmers in Ohio are using computers for various purposes. In 1991, only 32% of the farmers were making use of it. This shows that there is considerable increase in the farmers who are using computers. As internet becomes the means of communication, most farmers use this technological advancement for transaction processing or for retrieving information. The analysis shows that out of the total farmers who were surveyed, 80% of them are making use of the internet.

Computer in education:

Due to the globalization of education, so many challenges are posed by the new trends. In order to face all these challenges, information technology in the education sector is very important. It is essential that the students become familiar with the concept and use of information technology in order to equip them for future job market. Similarly, the faculty can achieve better quality in teaching methodology. The computer technology has developed in many fields. Its drastic development has created an immense impact in almost all the fields and thus leading to a new era.

Computer Technology - Is it Good Or Bad?

The 21st century has been the age of so many technological breakthroughs and advances, technologies aimed for one purpose and that is to make the lives of people better by helping them become more efficient in their work. One such technological breakthrough is computer technology.

Computer technology has grown in great proportions starting from a computer with a size that of a room to a small well-designed palm top computer. Computers nowadays have become an indispensable part of the lives of people, especially at work, at companies, businesses, schools, offices and even in homes.

It has made the world smaller, but has it made our world better? It would then lead us to ask whether computer technology is good or bad. Now let us try to look at first some of the bad effects. With the advent of computers and with the internet it has become easy to access pornographic sites, children are more exposed to explicit content; some students would lose focus on their studies as they play computer games. The number of obesity cases has increased and it has been attributed to too much computer activity that led to less physical activity among a number of people.

On the other side of the coin, computers have opened a whole new world of possibilities. It is now easier to gain information on world events; you can even find a job in the internet; you can spread advocacies to a vast number of people all over the world; and most importantly it is now easier to be connected with one another even if you are on the other side of the globe.

Computer technology, just like any other material on earth has been created with a common good in mind. Just like a knife, it has been made to cut and slice food to speed up cooking time for people but it can also be used to kill people, and you cannot ban the use of knives in order to stop killing. And so you can't blame computers for the problems it may have caused for it is the people who use them who caused the problem. It has disadvantages and advantages that must be taken into consideration.

But the problem is not computer technology itself; the problem resides on the people who use it. Computer technology is generally good for it can bring in a lot of good if it is used properly, but can do great harm if used unwisely.

People have choices on how they make use of earth's resources, and that choice will determine how certain materials will affect people, be it good or bad.

Thursday, July 13, 2017

Mobile App Development Trends in 2018

After a successful 2017, the mobile app industry is all set to take up and meet challenges in 2018. The mobile development scenario is on the way to maturing and becoming more user- friendly. It aims at integration of business needs and technical issues.

Mobile Application Performance Manager

Experience in the last year reveals that though the app market has performed well, there are less number of apps downloads per user. Developers are now looking at apps that engage and satisfy users and also encourage regular use of their apps. The aim is to make them technically sound and simultaneously increase the demand for use.

Blockchain technology

The sudden and meteoric rise in use of Bitcoins has fueled interest in mobile blockchain technology. Developers are ready to latch on to this interest. Their only concern would be to determine the benefits of using the new technology to replace the old SQL database for individual apps.

Machine Learning

Apple's Core ML Library has introduced built-in ML models. This gives developers a convenient way to include ML technology in iOS apps. in 2018 app developers are expected to leverage this advantage.

Chatbots

Chatbots were launched in 2016. They created messaging platforms using the bot to be used on websites. This year these bots are set to expand their domain to mobiles. Developers find it easy to use chatbots. They neither have to learn new interface nor do they need to develop native apps that need regular updating.

Android Instant App

This new entrant is likely to become a favorite this year. It needs no installation and is compatible with all OS. The possibility of embedding it in Google search engines acts as added advantage.

Optimized Mobile Page

Google AMP makes web browsing on mobiles faster. Domains are using AMP to reach and engage more users. More and more apps are expected to convert to AMP to leverage advantage.

5G is on its way

5G is ready to deliver speed. It will work up to sixty times faster than the present 4G technology. This new network is to roll out slowly with the USA based service providers taking the lead.

Return of the Cloud

2018 will see cloud-based apps rise to a whopping 89%. Cloud storage is secure. It clears space on devices and does not eat into device memory making it a preferred storage for private and commercial use. Mobile Backend as a Service allows for data to move back and forth from cloud to device easily, conveniently and fast.

Wearables will continue to grow this year. Security concerns will be a part of app development as more and more transactions are performed using mobiles. Developers will be engaged in developing more and more on-demand apps as their usage increases and startups begin to look at these as a means of reaching customers. Virtual reality and Augmented Reality apps will see an increase in demand and will drive the field of mobile app development.

Monday, July 3, 2017

Influence of Tablets on Our Kids

"Technology"- Heard the word? Well, if not them pardon me but you are living still in the previous age. Technology has made what we are today. The comforts that we are able to have now are all because of technology. This has made us much more advanced than we had been earlier.

The most impact that has been seen is in the children. There are the most affected from this technology. There have been both positive and negative effects, but the positive effects have out ruled the negative ones.

Nowadays the children are exposed to phones and tablets right from their births (quite literally). So, on an average, you will find yourself to be less smart than the little one, in terms of using the gadgets. While we may take months to learn gadgets they only require a couple of minutes. So, their intelligence has been decided to be utilized in a far more organized way through several tablet companies.

Companies are coming out with new concepts so that kids only benefit from using tablets and the parents can be sure that their child is up to no mischief. Tablets are now coming with learning enabled moods so that the child can learn while they play.

What has been included?

Tablets include several games which are specifically designed for the children. They help in imparting education. Certain apps are there which help kids identify the alphabets, animals, fruits. They teach how to write. Certain applications are also there which displays stories and rhymes.

Advantages of using tablets-

• Imparts methodical studying
• Enhances learning of the kids
• Learning is available according to age
• Memory and reproducing what they have learned becomes better
• Games teach them to overcome difficulty with intelligence
• The level of difficulty increases their ability of problem-solving
• The children becomes more interactive

Why should parents allow their kids use tablets?

Tablets come with parental settings. The parents can control the activities of the children on the tabs. They can keep a watch on their progress, per day usage and many more things. What is better is with tablets parenting becomes much easy. Especially the working parents would have much less to worry as their children would be learning the right things according to their age. Thus, this ensures that tablets are safe and allowing your little child to use tablet can be advantageous both for you as a parent and your child.

 

Wednesday, May 3, 2017

Just How Smart Are the Bots?

In 2013, much of world (and I) were smitten with the award-winning movie 'Her'. It was a rather entertaining movie; one that featured the lead actor, Joaquin Phoenix, falling in love with - wait for it - a computer system powered by Artificial Intelligence! So deep and moving was the man-machine love story that it raised the question - exactly how smart have the machines become? Turns out, quite a lot.

Chatbots first made an appearance in 1966. She was called ELIZA. (Yes, the bot was not only christened but also given a pronoun). Developed by German scientist Joseph Weizenbaum, the bot had roughly 200 lines of code and was capable of mimicking human conversations so accurately that she could fool others into believing that she was human! Above all, it was ELIZA's ability to pass the Turing Test, a test to determine intelligence based on how well it could impersonate human behavior, that made her particularly popular. ELIZA was succeeded by PARRY in 1972 - a more advanced version which bore the nickname, 'ELIZA with an Attitude'. From thereon, the bots only kept getting bolder, better, and well, smaller in size.

Today, chatbots are even taking on a number of human skills. We have chatbots for customer services which means the next time someone inquires about when their purchase will be delivered, it could be a chatbot answering their query. That's not all. If you can't figure out why your baby is red with rashes, a chatbot will help you fix a doctor's appointment. Likewise, other sectors such as insurance and banking also make use of chatbots. By communicating through natural conversation patterns, bots can answer relevant questions, coordinate activities, make financial statements, and even order you a pizza with choice of assorted toppings. According to Mircosoft's CEO Satya Nadella, bots are the new apps. By enabling conversation-based interactions (as compared to apps where customers navigate between static pages and drop-down menus) chatbots are on their way to making apps extinct.Chatbots are expected to disrupt all segments of insurance, much like many other industries. Some of the major insurance firms which has already embraced chatbots include Allianz, Link4 of Poland, Co-op Banking Group, Nationale-Nederlanden Insurance, Credit Agricole of France and RBC Insurance in Canada.

Back when I was a kid, my favorite cartoons were The Flintstones and The Jetsons - two drastically different and utopian worlds that were centuries apart; one way before my time and the other so far into the future, I thought I'd never see it happen. Turns out, I may have undermined technology just a little bit.

What Is Mechatronics?

Mechatronics, the term coined in Japan in the 1970s, has evolved over the past 25 years and has led to a special breed of intelligent products. What is mechatronics? It is a natural stage in the evolutionary process of modern engineering design. For some engineers, mechatronics is nothing new, and, for others, it is a philosophical approach to design that serves as a guide for their activities. Certainly, mechatronics is an evolutionary process, not a revolutionary one. It is clear that an all-encompassing definition of mechatronics does not exist, but in reality, one is not needed. It is understood that mechatronics is about the synergistic integration of mechanical, electrical, and computer systems.

One can understand the extent that mechatronics reaches into various disciplines by characterizing the constituent components comprising mechatronics, which include: (i) physical systems modeling, (ii) sensors and actuators, (iii) signals and systems, (iv) computers and logic systems, and (v) software and data acquisition.

Engineers and scientists from all walks of life and fields of study can contribute to mechatronics. As engineering and science boundaries become less well defined, more students will seek a multi-disciplinary education with a strong design component. Academia should be moving towards a curriculum, which includes coverage of mechatronic systems. In the future, growth in mechatronic systems will be fueled by the growth in the constituent areas. Advancements in traditional disciplines fuel the growth of mechatronics systems by providing "enabling technologies."

For example, the invention of the microprocessor had a profound effect on the redesign of mechanical systems and design of new mechatronics systems. We should expect continued advancements in cost-effective microprocessors and microcontrollers, sensor and actuator development enabled by advancements in applications of MEMS, adaptive control methodologies and real-time programming methods, networking and wireless technologies, mature CAE technologies for advanced system modeling, virtual prototyping, and testing. The continued rapid development in these areas will only accelerate the pace of smart product development. The Internet is a technology that, when utilized in combination with wireless technology, may also lead to new mechatronic products.

While developments in automotives provide vivid examples of mechatronics development, there are numerous examples of intelligent systems in all walks of life, including smart home appliances such as dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, microwaves, and wireless network enabled devices. In the area of "human-friendly machines", we can expect advances in robot-assisted surgery, and implantable sensors and actuators. Other areas that will benefit from mechatronic advances may include robotics, manufacturing, space technology, and transportation. The future of mechatronics is wide open.

Monday, April 3, 2017

Definition of VPN Authentication and Encryption

The fundamentals of creating a VPN are Authentication, strong Encryption and a method of secure Key Exchange. Authenticate the users, securely exchange keys for encryption then encrypt the data using the generated keys.

Authentication is used to validate a users identity using one or more of a number of methods:

Something you have - can be a key card, a security pass, drivers licence, a passport or similar. The possession of one of the above items is usually enough to confirm the identity of the holder. The problem with this is that the device can be lost or stolen, and sometimes used by other persons.

Something you know - a password, pass phrase or some other known information that can be used to calculate function from a secret message.

Something you are - A physical characteristic of your body such as your finger print, the retina print of your eye or your DNA.

Encryption is a means of taking some plain readable text into a cipher text utilizing some form of algorithmic mapping. The intended receiver of such a cipher text must have the means to reverse the process by knowing the same algorithm, but an attacker cannot know the process.

Encryption systems must use mathematically complex algorithms so as to provide a good enough deterrent from attackers to be able to use some brute force method of calculating the algorithm in use. Two common methods of encryption are Symmetric Encryption Systems and Public Key Encryption Systems:

Symmetric encryption simply uses an identical key for encryption of the plain text and decryption of the cipher text. and decryption at both ends. The encryptor applies the key to the plain text data which results in a cipher text. The decryptor reverses the by applying the same key to the cipher text to reveal the plain text data. The most common symmetric encryption system is the Data Encryption Standard (DES), of which there are several variations.

Public Key Encryption systems are a lot more complex than symmetric encryption systems such as DES and depend upon mathematical functions that are often referred to as "trap-door" functions. They involve complex mathematical formulae which normally involve exponentiation to high powers, modular arithmetic and the products of large prime numbers. The algorithms yield an encryption mechanism and an encryption key which can be made public and a decryption algorithm and decryption key that is kept secret. The mathematics of the algorithms is so complex that it is not possible to deduce the decryption mechanism from the encryption mechanism alone.